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Homelessness & Health: What’s the Connection? *


Homelessness can take many forms, with people living on the streets, in encampments or shelters, in transitional housing programs, or doubled up with family and friends. While the federal government reports 1.5 million people a year experience homelessness, other estimates find up to twice this number of people are actually without housing in any given year. The connection between housing and homelessness is generally intuitive, but the strong link between health and homelessness is often overlooked. This fact sheet outlines how health and homelessness are intertwined—and why housing is health care.

Poor heath is a major cause of homelessness

An injury or illness can start out as a health condition, but quickly lead to an employment problem due to missing too much time from work; exhausting sick leave; and/or not being able to maintain a regular schedule or perform work functions. This is especially true for physically demanding jobs such as construction, manufacturing, and other labor-intensive industries. The loss of employment due to poor health then becomes a vicious cycle: without funds to pay for health care (treatment, medications, surgery, etc.), one cannot heal to work again, and if one remains ill, it is difficult to regain employment. Without income from work, an injury or illness quickly becomes a housing problem. In these situations, any available savings are quickly exhausted, and relying on friends and family for assistance to help maintain rent/mortgage payments, food, medical care, and other basic needs can be short-lived. Once these personal safety nets are exhausted, there are usually very few options available to help with health care or housing. Ultimately, poor health can lead to unemployment, poverty, and homelessness.

Simply being without a home is a dangerous health condition.

Homelessness creates new health problems and exacerbates existing ones

Living on the street or in crowded homeless shelters is extremely stressful and made worse by being exposed to communicable disease (e.g. TB, respiratory illnesses, flu, hepatitis, etc.), violence, malnutrition, and harmful weather exposure. Chronic health conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and asthma become worse because there is no safe place to store medications properly. Maintaining a healthy diet is difficult in soup kitchens and shelters as the meals are usually high in salt, sugars, and starch (making for cheap, filling meals but lacking nutritional content). Behavioral health issues such as depression, alcoholism, or other substance use disorders can develop and/or are made worse in such difficult situations, especially if there is no solution in sight. Injuries that result from violence or accidents do not heal properly because bathing, keeping bandages clean, and getting proper rest and recuperation isn’t possible on the street or in shelters. Minor issues such as cuts or common colds easily develop into - National Health Care for the Homeless Council

People who are homeless have higher rates of illness and die on average 12 years sooner than the general U.S. population.

larger problems such as infections or pneumonia. Numerous health conditions among people who are homeless are frequently a complex mix of serious physical, mental health, substance use, and social problems. Poor health, high stress, unhealthy and dangerous environments, and an inability to control food intake often result in frequent visits to emergency rooms and hospitalizations.

Recovery and healing are more difficult without housing

Stable housing not only provides privacy and safety, it is also a place to rest and recuperate from surgery, illness, and other ailments without worry about where to sleep and find a meal, or how to balance these needs with obtaining health care and social services. The best, most coordinated medical services are not very effective if the patient’s health is continually compromised by street and shelter conditions. Even inpatient hospitalization or residential drug treatment and mental health care do not have lasting impacts if a client has to return to the streets or shelters upon discharge.

The Solution: Housing is Health Care*

Housing and health care work best together and are essential to preventing and ending homelessness. Health care services are more effective when a patient is stably housed, and in turn, maintaining housing is more likely if proper health care services are delivered. While there are many factors that influence health, stable housing is a key “social determinant of health” that directly impacts health outcomes. While some need only short-term assistance to regain health and reconnect to employment and housing on their own, others may be so seriously ill and/or disabled they will need longer-term support services in order to maintain housing. Either way, housing is necessary to realize a healthier society. Communities that invest in affordable housing incur lower public costs, achieve better health outcomes, and work to prevent and end homelessness.

What is the relationship between health, housing, and homelessness? *


Poor health (illness, injury and/or disability) can cause homelessness when people have insufficient income to afford housing. This may be the result of being unable to work or becoming bankrupted by medical bills.

Living on the street or in homeless shelters exacerbates existing health problems and causes new ones. Chronic diseases, such as hypertension, asthma, diabetes, mental health problems and other ongoing conditions, are difficult to manage under stressful circumstances and may worsen. Acute problems such as infections, injuries, and pneumonia are difficult to heal when there is no place to rest and recuperate.

Living on the street or in shelters also brings the risk of communicable disease (such as STDs or TB) and violence (physical, sexual, and mental) because of crowded living conditions and the lack of privacy or security. Medications to manage health conditions are often stolen, lost, or compromised due to rain, heat, or other factors.

When people have stable housing, they no longer need to prioritize finding a place to sleep each night and can spend more time managing their health, making time for doctors’ appointments, and adhering to medical advice and directions. Housing also decreases the risk associated with further disease and violence. In many ways, housing itself can be considered a form of health care because it prevents new conditions from developing and existing conditions from worsening. Learn more in Homelessness & Health: What’s the Connection?

Are there different types of homelessness? *

Yes, there are groups of people who experience homelessness in different ways, but all homelessness is characterized by extreme poverty coupled with a lack of stable housing. Children on their own or with their families, single adults, seniors, LGBTQ+ people, people of color, and veterans compose various demographic groups that may use different types of programs or services or have differing factors that contribute to their homelessness. There are also those who experience homelessness for various lengths of time (short-term, long-term, or “chronic”) or who experience multiple episodes of homelessness (refer to the previous FAQ regarding the definition of homelessness). Those who are “doubled up” or “couch surfing” may also be considered homeless for eligibility for different services. While demographic differences or varying lengths in the experience of homelessness often provide important background for service providers (both to adapt their practice and to help enroll them in specialized programs), there is a danger in focusing on subpopulations in that resources are reserved until people become the most desperate, creating a “race to the bottom.” Nothing but stable housing fundamentally differentiates those who experience homelessness and those who don’t, and all people deserve the human right to housing.


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